ta'anit (ta'anis) -- fast day

Tabernacle -- the portable sanctuary built in the time of Moses; the Mishkan

Tachanun -- prayer of supplication recited after the morning and afternoon Amidah on weekdays

tafel -- lit.: subordinate; used in context of blessings referring to a secondary food

tahara -- ritual purity

Taharat HaMishpacha (Taharas) -- lit.: family purity; the laws of separation between husband and wife during the days of menstruation, followed by the woman's immersion in a mikveh

Taharot (Taharos) -- lit.: “pure things”; final section of the Mishnah, concerning the laws of spiritual impurity

takanah -- Shabbat restriction enacted by the Sages

takanot (takanos) -- Shabbat restrictions enacted by the Sages

tallit (tallis) -- prayer shawl

tallit katan (tallis) -- lit.: small cloak; a simple, white rectangular garment with a hole in the middle for the head, worn by men underneath one's regular shirt during the daytime

talmid chacham -- Torah scholar

Tammuz -- month in the Jewish (lunar) calendar, coinciding with June and July; the Seventeenth of Tammuz is a rabbinic fast day marking the start of a 3-week period of mourning over the destruction of Jerusalem

Tana'im -- sages of the Mishnaic period

Tanach -- acronym for Torah Nevi'im Ketuvim -- Torah, Prophets, Writings, the three divisions of the Jewish Bible

Taryag Mitzvot (Mitzvos) -- 613 mitzvot of the Torah (taryag is the gematria of 613)

Taz -- acronym for “Turei Zahav,” a classic book of Jewish law, authored by Rabbi Dovid HaLevi (Poland 1586-1667)

techeilet (techeiles) -- a blue dye used to make tzitzit

techiyat ha'meitim (techiyas ha'meisim) -- resurrection of the dead; one of the 13 principles of Jewish faith is that resurrection will occur at the End of Days

tefach -- a standard talmudic unit of length, approximately 8 centimeters, or 3.2 inches

tefillah -- prayer

tefillin -- small black leather boxes, containing Torah verses, worn by men during morning prayers

Tehillim -- biblical book of Psalms, authored primarily by King David

Terumah Gedolah -- “The Big Donation”; for the Kohen to eat in a state of ritual purity

Terumat Ma'aser (Terumas) -- “Donation from the Tenth”; what the Levi gives to the Kohen

teshuva -- return, repentance

tevel -- untithed produce; forbidden to eat

Tevet (Teves) -- month in the Jewish (lunar) calendar, coinciding with December and January; this month is ushered in at the tail end of Chanukah, and contains a rabbinic fast day on the Tenth of Tevet

The Ran -- acronym for Rebbeinu Nissim (Gerona 1290-1375), author of a classic commentary on the Talmud

The Rosh -- acronym for Rabbi Asher ben Yechiel (Germany, Spain 1250-1327), author of a classic commentary on the Talmud

tikkun ha'middot (ha'middos) -- improving one's character traits

Tikkun HaOlam -- lit.: “repair the world”; the national-historic mission of the Jewish people

tikkun middot ha'nefesh (middos) -- improving the qualities of the soul

tikkun olam -- repairing the world; an action promoting social justice

timtum ha-lev -- lit.: a plugged-up heart, i.e. suffering from a spiritual ailment

tirchah -- lit.: “effort”; an activity not in the spirit of Shabbat

Tisha B'Av -- lit.: ninth day of (the Hebrew month of) Av; the Jewish national day of mourning, which marks a series of calamities such as the sin of the Spies, and the destruction of the First and Second Temples

Tishrei -- month in the Jewish (lunar) calendar which marks the start of the year; coincides with September and October; this month contains Rosh Hashana (1st and 2nd Tishrei), Fast of Gedalia (3rd), Yom Kippur (10th) and Sukkot (begins 15th)

tochen -- grinding; one of the 39 primary categories of forbidden Shabbat activity

tofair -- sewing; one of the 39 primary categories of forbidden Shabbat activity

toladah -- lit.: “offspring”; a subset of one of the 39 primary categories of forbidden Shabbat activity

toladot (tolados) -- lit.: offsprings; subsets of the 39 primary categories of forbidden Shabbat activity

Torah m'Sinai -- lit.: Torah from Mount Sinai; refers to the doctrine that the entire Torah, including the Oral Law, was given to Moses at Mount Sinai

Torah sheh'b'al peh -- Oral Tradition -- the Mishnah, Talmud and Midrash

Torah sheh'bich'tav (sheh'bich'sav) -- Written Tradition -- Five Books of Moses, Prophets and Writings (i.e. Tanach)

Torah study -- it is a basic Jewish obligation to study Torah at all available times.

Tosfot (Tosfos) -- classic commentary on the Talmud, written in 12th – 13th century France by the students and grandsons of Rashi

Tosfot Yom Tov -- classic commentary on the Mishnah, authored by Rabbi Yom Tov Lipman Heller (Prague, Krakow 1579-1654)

toveh -- spinning; one of the 39 primary categories of forbidden Shabbat activity

treif -- lit.: torn; commonly refers to any non-kosher food

tumah -- ritual impurity

Tur -- Rabbi Yaakov ben HaRosh (Germany, Spain 1275-1340), son of the Rosh who wrote the biblical commentary, “Baal HaTurim,” and “Arba'ah Turim” (Four Pillars), the precursor to the Shulchan Aruch

tzad -- trapping; one of the 39 primary categories of forbidden Shabbat activity

tzaddik -- righteous, holy person

tzaddikim -- righteous, holy people

tzedakah -- lit.: righteousness; refers to charitable donations

tzeit ha'kochavim (tzeis) -- lit.: emergence of the stars; nightfall (dusk), the beginning of a new halachic day; usually 30-40 minutes after sunset

tzitzit (tzitzis) -- strings tied to the corners of 4-cornered garments, designed to remind us of God's Torah and mitzvot

tzli -- roasting -- using the medium of direct fire

tzniut (tznius) -- modesty

tzom -- fast day

tzovaya -- coloring; one of the 39 primary categories of forbidden Shabbat activity

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